The Binding Energy of the Deuteron in the Exponentially Damped Breit-Pauli-Schrödinger (XBPS) Model

The XBPS method that is successful in obtaining a low-energy state of positronium which is equivalent to the photon is employed to study the effects of nuclear binding. The theoretical treatment of interactions that are capable of holding an electron within the small volume of a neutron, with the requisite 500 MeV kinetic energy expected for it on the basis of the de Broglie p=h/λ relation, is applied to the description of the structure of the deuteron (2H). In agreement with the nuclear-shell model of Goeppert-Mayer and Jensen, it is found that spin-dependent nuclear forces must be added to the Breit-Pauli electromagnetic Hamiltonian in order to obtain agreement with the experimental finding of a triplet ground state. In particular, a spin-spin δ operator with a proton coupling constant of 1.0 bohr magneton succeeds in producing the desired multiplicity and approximate total energy of the 2H ground state. Two s-type orbitals φa and φb are needed to describe the ground state wavefunction, one of which characterizes the neutron and the other, the proton. Double occupation of one of these orbitals produces a satisfactory description of 3He. As for the neutron, it is found that an electron-antineutrino e-ν complex is essential for obtaining a proper description of the binding process in all cases.


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