Hafele-Keating Atomic Clock Experiment and the Universal Time-Dilation Law
2018-01-22
Relativity and Gravity Publication - No. 63
Buenker
Robert J.
Prof. Dr.
Buenker, Robert J.
aut
en
<p>The results of the timing experiments using atomic clocks carried onboard circumnavigating
airplanes [J. C. Hafele and R. E. Keating, Science 177, 168-172 (1971)] are reviewed. It is
pointed out that the finding that the eastward-flying clock arrived back at the airport of origin
with less elapsed time than its westward-flying counterpart was not expected based on the
conventional interpretation of the Lorentz transformation (LT). The latter predicts that a moving
clock always runs slower than one that is stationary in the rest frame of the observer. In order to
satisfactorily represent the observed timing results it was necessary to assume that clocks slow in
inverse proportion to γ=(1-v<sub>ECM</sub><sup>2</sup>c<sup>-2</sup>) -0.5 ≈0.5v<sup>2</sup>c<sup>-2</sup> , where v<sub>ECM</sub> is the speed of the clock relative to
the earthʼs center of mass (ECM) and c is the speed of light in free space. A similar result was
obtained earlier in experiments in which an x-ray source and absorber were mounted on a high-
speed rotor and the reference frame for computing clock speeds is the rotor axis. The common
proportionality relationship for the two fundamental experiments is therefore referred to as the
Universal Time-dilation Law (UTDL). Calculations of elapsed times based on the HK
interpretation are presented which speak against the traditional LT interpretation of symmetric
time dilation when clocks are not subject to unbalanced forces. A different space-time
transformation is presented which is consistent with the UTDL, unlike the LT, but also satisfies
both of Einstein's postulates of relativity and is compatible with the relativistic velocity
transformation (RVT).
Time dilation
Lorentz transformation (LT)
Universal Time-Dilation Law (UTDL)
alternative Global Positioning System-Lorentz transformation (GPS-LT)
relativistic velocity transformation (RVT)
2018-01-22T10:49:59.562Z
2018-01-22T12:22:20.567Z
published
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