Newton's Law of Inertia and Clock-rate Proportionality
Einstein's Historic Mistake
2016-01-19
Buenker
Robert J.
Prof. Dr.
Buenker, Robert J.
aut
en
<p> A straightforward extension of Newton’s First Law leads to the conclusion that the properties of
objects in pure translation should remain constant for an infinite period of time. The Principle of
Causality demands this because of the absence of unbalanced forces which might otherwise
affect their values. Consequently, one expects that the rates of two proper clocks in different
inertial systems <i>should remain strictly proportional to one another</i>. It is shown that this
conclusion is inconsistent with the Lorentz transformation (LT) of Einstein’s Special Theory of
Relativity (STR), which holds that two clocks in relative motion must each be running slower
than the other (Einstein’s Symmetry Principle). Instead, time dilation is expected to be
asymmetric, i.e. it is always possible in principle to know which of two clocks is running slower
(Universal Time-dilation Law). Transverse Doppler measurements that have been carried out
with high-speed rotors, as well as the study of the rates of circumnavigating atomic clocks
carried out by Hafele and Keating in 1971, are in quantitative agreement with clock-rate
proportionality in different rest frames. The same relationship is assumed in the operation of the
Global Positioning System (GPS) between elapsed times for a given event that are measured on
satellites and corresponding values obtained with atomic clocks located on the earth’s surface. It
is shown that there is an alternative version of the Lorentz transformation, designated the GPSLT,
which incorporates the proportionality of clock rates and elapsed times. It nonetheless
satisfies both of Einstein’s postulates of relativity and is also consistent with the relativistic
velocity transformation (RVT) derived in his original work. The GPS-LT differs from the
original LT in that it eschews space-time mixing and is consistent with the absolute simultaneity
of remote events enunciated by Newton and his contemporaries. It is also characterized by a
different relationship between space and time coordinates than the well-known LT condition of
Lorentz invariance. An amended version of the Relativity Principle (RP) is proposed on this
basis which assumes that <i>the units in which the laws of physics are expressed differ from one
inertial system to another</i>. The GPS-LT is therefore consistent with the <i>uniform scaling</i> of
corresponding physical properties in different rest frames. Finally, it predicts <i>that isotropic
length expansion accompanies time dilation</i> in a given rest frame, not the familiar type of
anisotropic length contraction posited by STR. Experimental evidence supporting this
conclusion is obtained from the Ives-Stilwell transverse Doppler experiment and studies of the
range of decay of meta-stable particles.
Einstein’s Symmetry Principle (ESP)
asymmetric time dilation
clock-rate proportionality
Universal Time-Dilation Law (UTDL)
Lorentz transformation (LT)
relativistic velocity transformation (RVT)
alternative Global Positioning System-Lorentz transformation (GPS-LT)
absolute remote simultaneity
isotropic length expansion
uniform scaling of physical properties
amended version of the Relativity Principle (RP)
2015-07-13T10:31:51.051Z
2016-01-19T14:01:43.486Z
published
Pub